Bioenergetic Testing Studies & Results
Below is a brief synopsis of several research studies conducted in this field and the accompanying bibliography and/or researchers. If you want to read the full study, use the bibliography to find it or contact the researchers. We have provided this information as a service. We will not be able to send anyone a copy of the original studies as it is far to time consuming. We hope you find these articles of value.
Reproducibility of Point Readings
There were 34 subjects measured on two occasions in this study with 44 points measured 4 times on each occasion for a total of 11,968 readings. The results showed a mean deviation of 0.70 respectively. The readings were taken by Mark Galloway a long-time and accomplished practitioner in this field.
Source: Nancy R. Roberts, Ph.D., C. Norman Shealy, M.D., Ph.D., William A. Tiller Ph.D. "Are there Electrical Devices that can Measure the body's Energy State Change to an Acupuncture Treatment?"
Meridian stress assessment seems to be at least as reliable, and probably more reliable, than other forms of allergy testing available. It is much safer than skin or challenge testing, since exposure to an allergenic substance is minimal. It is also much more pleasant for the patient than skin testing, since this form of testing is relatively painless. There are also no unpleasant adverse reactions, which may last for many days with skin or challenge testing. Meridian assessment is usually much less expensive and helps to eliminate trial and error treatment dosages.
Source: Dennis W. Remington, M.D. "A History of Meridian Stress Assessment"
Electrical Skin Conductance in diagnosis
In clinical practice, EDS instruments are useful as diagnostic supplements to blood tests, radiographic imaging, and case histories historically and currently, EDS instruments characterize differences between inflammatory and degenerative conditions. The integration of reliable and valid bioelectric medical instruments into the clinical setting augments the ability to rapidly evaluate tissues which are difficult or impossible to asses by conventional test procedures.
Source: Quantitative analysis of Electrical Skin Conductance in diagnosis: Historical and current views of Bioelectric Medicine by Barbara Brewitt, Ph.D. Journal of Naturopathic Medicine Volume 6, Number 1
The Effects of Gender or Age on Point Readings
This study was done on healthy subjects; 348 males and 135 females were studied for the bioelectric activities of the body using the principles of electro-acupuncture according to Voll. In spite of some variance among testers there were no gender and age effects for all specific points studied. These findings should be important for consideration in using these measurements for medical diagnosis.
Source: Studies of Bioenergy in Healthy Subjects by Julia J. Tsuei, M.D., Chieh Chung, M.D., Frederick M.K. Lam, M.D., and Ming-pi Mi, Ph.D. American Journal of Acupuncture, Vol. 16, No. 2, April-June 1988
A homeostat is a hierarchical regulating structure, which in the process of its action maintains dynamic stability of some physiological parameter of the living organism. Bioelectrical homeostasis forms a first level homeostat that is united into a second level homeostat by the autonomic nervous system. The first level homeostat, bioelectrical, influences control through the autonomic nervous system which is responsible for the equilibrium in the internal systems of the body. Where meridians are regulator-executers that provide information to glands and organs that are regulator-controllers through the autonomic nervous system.
Source: Bioelectrical Homeostasis as a Component of Acupuncture Mechanism by G. Zukauskas, M.D., K.Dapsys, Biophysicist Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol.16, PP.117-126, 1991
Bioenergetic Diagnosis and Conformation using Classical Diagnosis
The selected eleven cases presented are reported from a family practitioner's office using Electroacupuncture According to Voll (EAV) diagnostic technique. Six cases had finding of malignant tumors, three were diagnosed as GI bleeding, one for acute inflammation, and one for chronic degenerative disease. All findings were confirmed by classical means of diagnosis.
Source: Reprint requests should be addressed to: Julia J. Tsuei, M.D., Professor, International Health, School of Public Health, University of Hawaii, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822.
Electrical Properties and Responsive Behavior of Skin
This article defines the conductance, capacitance, and resistance properties of both macroscopic and microscopic areas of human skin and the inter-relations with bioenergetic measurements.
Source: On the Explanation of Electrodermal Diagnostic and Treatment Instruments: Part I. The Electrical Behavior of the Human Skin by William A. Tiller, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
Electromagnetic Frequencies (Signatures of Items)
The most straightforward expressions of useful electrical quantities are as complex numbers in frequency domain. This article goes on to explain how the body responds to these frequencies and how we can measure that response through specific locations on the skin.
Source: Dialectric Response in Human Skin by William A. Tiller, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305
Bioelectromagnetics versus Biochemistry
The National Institute of Health states that "bioelectrmagnetics essentially underlies biochemistry, in that chemical reactions of biological importance are mediated by the electromagnetic force." Bioenergetic Medicine offers the possibility of more economical and more effective diagnosis and noninvasive therapies for medical problems, including those considered intractable or recalcitrant to conventional treatments.
Source: Electromagnetic Applications in Medicine NIH-OAM Panel Report by Beverly Rubik, Ph.D. and Robert G. Flower; National Institutes of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine, January 14, 1993
Radioactive Isotope Imaging of Meridians
The work was conducted on over 250 healthy control subjects and on 80 patients with renal pathology. The work was conducted on patients form the Department of Urology and from the Acupuncture Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine from the Necker Hospital in Paris with each experiment repeated several times. Morphological studies found those tracer migrations from acupoints in both healthy and sick patients followed the same identical pathways with those described as "meridians" in Chinese traditional medicine. The study also found that the rate of flow through the meridians was altered by chronic or acute pathology.
Source: Nuclear Medicine and Acupuncture: A Study on the Migration of Radioactive Tracers after Injection at Acupoints; American Journal of Acupuncture, Vol.20, No.3, 1992 by Jean-Claude Darras, Pierre de Vernejoul, and Pierre Albarede, C.H.U. Necker-Enfants Malades, F-75 743 Paris Cedex 15 France
Snapshots in Time
Disease processes disrupt the body's normally balanced mechanisms. Current chemical analysis only captures "snapshots" that measure a brief time frame, creating the appearance of a static state where none exists. By measuring electrical resistance over time, EDS devices provide clinicians with a dynamic profile of these normal or distorted oscillatory patterns. The evolving field of bioelectric medicine holds great promise for the early diagnosis of significant disease states and for earlier and more effective treatments.
Source: EDS: Auto-regulation & Cell Signal Enhancement by Barbara Brewitt, Ph.D., Bridges / ISSSEEM Magazine, vol.7, No.2, 1996
Meridians and Coronary Heart Disease
This research found that there was a relation to diagnosed heart disease and the electrical resistance of tissues connected through a meridian pathway. They showed these electrical resistance values were specific and distinct for each type of disorder as well as chronic and acute interrelations.
Source: Characteristics of Reactive Electropermeable Points on the Auricles of Coronary Heart Disease Patients; Clinical Cardiology (16, 415-419, 1993) by Keijiro Daku, M.D., Ph.D.; Yoshito Mukaino, M.D., Ph.D; Hong Ying, M.D.; Kikuo Arakawa, M.D. Ph.D. (Department of Internal Medicine, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka City, Japan)
Medicine Testing and Physiological Response
EAV has shown that each acupuncture point bears a direct relationship to a specific anatomical structure or physiological function in the body. A serendipitous discovery showed that when medicine, if correctly chosen, will change the reading values to a more normal level. The scientific validity of EAV and medicine testing has been firmly established over the past quarter century and a number of laboratory experiments are outlined to substantiate and corroborate this exciting advance in medicine.
Source: The Phenomenon of Medicine Testing in Electroacupuncture According to Voll by Reinhold Voll, M.D.; Richard-Wagner-Strasse 5, D-731 Plochingen, West Germany
This study demonstrated the effectiveness of medicine testing as a beneficial adjunct to the physician in determining the proper dosages of medicines prior to dispensing to the patient. It also showed that abnormally functioning organs, as indicated by testing the disease related acupuncture points, can be balanced by corresponding properly dosed allopathic medicines or homeopathic remedies and nosodes.
Source: Study on the Bioenergetic Measurement of Acupuncture Points for Determination of Correct Dosages of Allopathic or Homeopathic Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Fred M. K. Lam, M.D., Julia J. Tsuei, M.D., Zixian Zho, M.D.; American Journal of Acupuncture, Vol.18, No.2, 1990
Skin Impedance is Frequency Sensitive
A special differential electrode was designed to perform continuous press intensity against the skin. The study revealed that the impedance readings would respond differently to set ranges of frequencies and intensities.
Source: Active Acupuncture Point Impedance and Potential Measurements by Jacob Fraden, Engineering Design Center Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106; Am. J. Acupuncture, No.2, Vol.7, April-June 1979
The Process of Healing
Injury to tissues represents a source of release of energy, leading to structural modifications in tissue. Artificial activation can even lead to beneficial effects in disease. This energy gives rise to a physiochemical potential difference in relation to surrounding non-injured tissue. This book goes on to explain the relationship between meridians, tissues, and how they are affected by something as small as one ionic charge.
Source: Biologically Closed Electrical Circuits by Bjorn E. W. Nordenstrom, M.D.; Nordic Medical Publications
Pictures of GSR or Acupuncture Points
Galvanic Skin Response clearly demonstrates the presence of an organized system of highly electroconductive points on the human skin. The techniques described in this article allow photography of these points and how they relate to the autonomic nerve reflexes. The photographed points form distinct organized patterns on the skin which closely correspond to the points noted on oriental acupuncture charts.
Source: Direct Observation and Photography of Electroconductive Points on Human Skin by Ralph J. Luciani, D.O., Ph.D; 125 Fry Boulevard, Suite 4, Sierra Vista, AZ 85635; Am. J. Acupuncture, No.4, Vol.6, Oct-Dec 1978